MONTEPESCALI

MONTEPESCALI

the falcon of the Maremma

Laureati

Jan
07

Montispescalis A.D. MCXLVII

Amministrazione Separata Beni di Uso Civico
Museo della Storica Locale
“Ildebrando Imberciadori”
English version

Attingendo senza alcuna limitazione dagli antichissimi documenti storici datati ante e dopo Cristo,attinenti alla storia del vetusto comune di Montepescali costituitosi libero nell’Anno del Signore 1147,rinvenuti in diversi Archivi nazionali ed esteri,ed esposti in questo Museo-Archivio, voluto all’unanimità dal Consiglio dell’Amministraziome Beni Civici di Montepescali – delibera n° 10 del 6 Aprile 1994,alla cui direzione è stato nominato il Presidente del citato Ente -vedi delibera n° 30 del 1° Agosto 1997,il cav. Giotto Minucci, ad oggi si sono laureati i seguenti studenti universitari:


UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di FIRENZE – Dipartimento di Progettazione
“Rilievo per la Storia di MONTEPESCALI”
Enzo PASQUINI – Marco PASQUINI
Relatore : Prof. Arch. Marco BINI


UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di SIENA – Facoltà di Giurisprudenza
“USI CIVICI E TERRE COLLETTIVE” – “LA REALTA’ DI MONTEPESCALI”
Pier Paolo MONTOMOLI
Relatore : Prof.ssa Floriana COLAO

UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di SIENA – Facoltà di Giurisprudenza
“DUE STATUTI A CONFRONTO: MONTEPESCALI e CASTIGLIONI DELLA PESCAIA”
Katia BOVANI
Relatore : Prof.ssa Floriana COLAO
Correlatore : Prof.ssa Donatella CIAMPOLI

UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di SIENA – Facoltà di Giurisprudenza
“STATUTI DI MONTEPESCALI (1427) E STAUTI DI MONTORSAIO (1432)”
Veruska PERUZZI
Relatore : Prof.ssa Floriana COLAO


UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di ROMA “LA SAPIENZA” – Facoltà di Architettura
“RESTAURO DEL ROMITORIO DI SANTA MARIA MADDALENA A MONTEPESCALI E PROPOSTA DI VALORIZZAZIONE DEI MONASTERI GUGLIELMITI SULLE VIE DI PELLEGRINAGGIO PER ROMA”
Angelo LIMONI
Relatore : Prof. Arch. S. A. CURUNI


MONTEPESCALI Lì 28 Giugno 2000 IL DIRETTORE DEL MUSEO (Cavalier Giotto MINUCCI)

University Degrees

Jan
07

Montispescalis A.D. MCXLVII

Amministrazione Separata Beni di Uso Civico
Museo della Storica Locale
“Ildebrando Imberciadori”
Italian version

The following university students have been awarded degrees for their study of documents displayed in the archives of the Museo Ildebrando Imberciadori. Without restriction, they utilized ancient documents, dated both before and after Christ, related to the history of Montepescali, which was constituted as a free and independent commune in 1147. The documents were recovered in various national and foreign archives. The museum-archive was established under a resolution of the Consiglio dell’Amministraziome Beni Civici di Montepescali on April 6, 1994. It is under the direction of Cav. Giotto Minucci, who was appointed President of the above corporate body on August 1, 1997.


UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di FIRENZE – Dipartimento di Progettazione
“Rilievo per la Storia di MONTEPESCALI”
Enzo PASQUINI – Marco PASQUINI
Relatore : Prof. Arch. Marco BINI


UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di SIENA – Facoltà di Giurisprudenza
“USI CIVICI E TERRE COLLETTIVE” – “LA REALTA’ DI MONTEPESCALI”
Pier Paolo MONTOMOLI
Relatore : Prof.ssa Floriana COLAO

UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di SIENA – Facoltà di Giurisprudenza
“DUE STATUTI A CONFRONTO: MONTEPESCALI e CASTIGLIONI DELLA PESCAIA”
Katia BOVANI
Relatore : Prof.ssa Floriana COLAO
Correlatore : Prof.ssa Donatella CIAMPOLI

UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di SIENA – Facoltà di Giurisprudenza
“STATUTI DI MONTEPESCALI (1427) E STAUTI DI MONTORSAIO (1432)”
Veruska PERUZZI
Relatore : Prof.ssa Floriana COLAO


UNIVERSITA’ degli Studi di ROMA “LA SAPIENZA” – Facoltà di Architettura
“RESTAURO DEL ROMITORIO DI SANTA MARIA MADDALENA A MONTEPESCALI E PROPOSTA DI VALORIZZAZIONE DEI MONASTERI GUGLIELMITI SULLE VIE DI PELLEGRINAGGIO PER ROMA”
Angelo LIMONI
Relatore : Prof. Arch. S. A. CURUNI


MONTEPESCALI Lì 28 Giugno 2000 IL DIRETTORE DEL MUSEO (Cavalier Giotto MINUCCI)

The Art of Clockmaking in the Maremma – XIV-XIX Centuries

Jan
07

The Art of Clockmaking in the Maremma – XIV-XIX Centuries
by Giotto Minucci

Primitive humans observed and contemplated the phenomena of the universe around them. They noticed that day changed into night and that differences attended the succession of the seasons.

They noticed many small things – that some singing birds are quiet at certain hours of the day, some flowers open and close their petals with regularity, that shadows produced by the sun’s rays are very long in the morning, shorter at midday, and become long again in the evening. Humans used the clocks of Nature to regulate their lives after observing changes in the Sun and Moon, in the world around them, in their own bodies, and in the behavior of animals and plants.
Looking at the sky they saw that the perfect synchronism in the movements of the stars and planets determined the measure of time. They found simple ways to measure the passage of time – the sun dial, the hour glass, and the water clock.

As understanding of the natural sciences progressed, people made a better and more precise mechanism to tell time. They called it “horologium” from the Latin, and the word soon became of general use throughout Europe and among the scholars of the Roman Empire.
The clock did not become a mechanism of precision until 1582 when Galileo discovered “isochronism” – the rhythm that governs every aspect of the world and universe. The knowledge enabled Galileo and his successors to measure time exactly by counting uniform periodic motions.

The art of clockmaking began with the institution of the monastic orders, but credit for the invention of the “artificial clock” – a clock with wheels driven by weights – is attributed to Ireneo Pacifico, the Archdeacon of the Church of Verona (778-846).

He was a man of exceptional culture, an astronomer, a mathematician, an architect, and a poet. In his poem “Argumentum Horologi” he describes the principles of the clock’s construction, the Celestial Sphere – an ideal external sphere concentric with the earth that rotates in an arc of 24 hours – the stars, and the North Star as the point of reference during the dark hours of the night. He tells us that the “horologium” is regulated by the stars.

The “Argumentum Horologii” was well known during the Middle Ages throughout Europe. It was appreciated for its poetic composition and its important scientific value. It came to be the source of fundamental knowledge for the making of mechanical clocks with a crown wheel, and especially for those clocks with complicated mechanisms like the escapement and the partitora, a crown wheel with irregularly-spaced teeth that regulates a clock’s chiming.
The disciples of Ireneo Pacifico comemmorated their great teacher with this epitaph in the Church of S. Zeno in Verona: “No one before him found a way to tell time at night. He found a way and he built the first night clock.” A weight-driven clock of the type invented by Pacifico was placed in the church tower in Verona during the 8th century.

It can be confirmed that the first information about clocks with crown wheels was found in Italy and that the noble art of clockmaking was born there.

Actual mechanical clockmaking began in Europe in 1300 in Milan, the first town to have a public clock. The clock was placed in the tower of the Church of S. Eustorgio. This was noted in a manuscript by Galvano Fiamma (1283-1344), a chronicler from Milan: “A magnificent quadrant was placed in the tower, a clock constructed of iron”. All the civilized world was astonished to see a clock with crown wheels, weight-driven, a masterpiece of the genius of Man. Dante describes the clock in Cantos X, XXIV, XXVIII, and XXXIII of the Paradiso.

After Milan, all the principal cities in Italy competed to have clocks of their own in the Palazzo Pubblico or in the bell towers of their artistic churches.

In Florence, always a center of culture, art and science, the first clock was placed in the tower of the Palazzo Vecchio in 1354. Siena added a magnificent clock to the Torre del Mangia in 1359.

Grosseto had a public clock by 1400, as indicated in a notation in the “Descrizione delle Entrate e Spese” of the Republic of Siena: “To the Clockmaker twelve golden scudi a year”.

Soon public clocks were also found in smaller communities. In 1676, Senatore Bartolomeo Gherardini in the services of Cosimo III, Granduke of Tuscany, listed no less than 259 towns and in nearly all of them was a public clock. This is shown by notations indicating the monies paid to clockmakers in these towns for their services.
In the Tuscan language of the 14th century, the curators of civic clocks were called “temperatori”, which meant “clockmakers” or “teachers of clockmaking”. The temperatori were able artisans who knew how to read and write, how to solve mathematical calculations, and who had knowledge of astronomy. They were experts on the properties of metals – especially iron, which they could work at both hot and cold temperatures. The temperatori were well paid by the community government and enjoyed a position of prestige in society.

Today in the Maremma very few antique clocks remain in our towers. The most important in regard to the history of clockmaking are those in Grosseto, Pari, and in Montepescali.
These clocks were admirably restored by Carlo Alberto Nannetti. A most able artisan, he had the mechanical know-how to restore the clocks to their original condition and use. These clocks were studied to help identify the nationality of the clock in the History Museum of Geneva. It was determined that this clock came from the province of Grosseto.

Carlo Alberto Nannetti also preserved many precious works relating to the art of clockmaking in the Province of Grosseto and in Tuscany.

Carlo Alberto Nannetti

Jan
07


Carlo Alberto Nannetti with a 17th-century clock mechanism he restored in Grosseto.

Nannetti with Giotto Minucci, historian and curator of Montepescali’s museum.

A Sampling of Museum Exhibits

Jan
07

A Sampling of Museum Exhibits

These are examples of traditional carts used by residents of the Maremma.

This is a model of a guillotine used for executions in the Maremma.

The museum offers a chance to see musical instruments played by the Montepescali band in the past.

Examples of Etruscan stonework and implements found in the area.

Giotto Minnucci, curator, at work in the museum.

L’ultima ghigliottina della Maremma

Jan
07

Book cover

The Last Guillotine of the Maremma
English

(Il libro, scritto in lingua italiana, presente nelle principali Università italiane e straniere)

di Giotto Minucci

I fatti narrati nel libro sono effettivamente avvenuti nella pacifica Toscana durante la reggenza degli Asburgo-Lorenesi. Più particolareggiata viene trattata la tragica strage dei componenti la famiglia Tacchia, oriundi di Norcia, proprietari di una drogherìa, eccidio avvenuto nei boschi di Montepescali la mattina sel 16 Giugno 1821, ad opera di una banda di briganti, sventurati molti di essi, colpovoli di avere rubato una pagnotta di pane!

Dalla ricostruzione del tragico fatto di sangue e dall’ accurato esame degli Atti dell’ esemplare processo penale che ad esso seguì, si offre al lettore oltrechè un’affascinante cronaca giudiziaria dal gusyo romanzesco, un singolare ed autentico spaccato storico della vita sociale nell’ antica ed amara “terra di confino”, la Maremma del Granducato di Toscana.

Viene messo altresì mel massimo risalto l’abolizione della PENA DI MORTE avvenuta in Toscana il 30 Novembre 1786, epoca in cui il granduca Pietro Leopoldo approvò la più celebre Legge mai emanata in Italia, il più moderno codice penale del Settecento in Europa. Con questa riforma vennerò abolite per la prima volta la pena di morte, la tortura ed il reato di lesa maestà, imponendo inoltre ai Giudici la massima possibile solecitudine nei processi e fu istituito anche un fondo per indennizzare le persone ingiustamente processate.

La pena di morte fu di nuovo ripristinata nel 1790 soltanto ai reati di sommosse politiche contro lo Stato e successivamente riconfermata diopo la “Restaurazione” (caduta di Napoleone) dal granduca Ferdinando III, anche per i reati comuni.

Si riporta inoltre integralmente il processo penale celebrato in Grosseto negli anni 1821-1822, ove vennero messi a confronti con gli imputati otre 180 testimoni, confronto poi detto “alla americana”.

Furono sentenziate cinque condanne a morte eseguita poi una soltanto per mezzo della GHIGLIOTTINA introdotta in Toscana per ordine del granduca Ferdinando III il 29 Agosto 1817. Nel 1859 poi, dopo la cacciata dalla TOSCANA degli Asburgo-Lorenesi e cioè proprio alla vigilia dell’Unità d’Italia, fu il Governo Provvisorio Toscano ad abolire definitamente la “pena capitale”. La Toscana confermò così la sua scelta: “fra di Noi la civiltà fu sempre più forte della scure del carnefice”.

I luoghi ove avvennero i misfatti narrati nel libro, sono tuttora intatti, tali da ricostruire oggi quanto avvenne in quella triste mattina del 16 Giugno 1821.

The Last Guillotine of the Maremma

Jan
07

Book cover

The Last Guillotine of the Maremma
Italiano

(The book, written in Italian and found in major university libraries)

by Giotto Minucci

The events narrated in the book happened in Tuscany during the regency of the Hapsburg-Lorena. The book tells of the tragic slaughter of members of the Tacchia family, natives of Norcia and the owners of a food store. The massacre took place in the woods near Montepescali on the morning of June 16, 1821. It was the work of a gang of brigands, many of whom were unfortunate themselves and guilty of having stolen a loaf of bread!

The tragic and bloody incident has been reconstructed through an accurate examination of laws exemplified in the criminal trial that followed. The reader is presented with a fascinating judicial chronicle from the “gusyo romanzesco”, an unusual, authentic, and historical part of social life in the ancient and bitter “land of confinement” – the “terra di confino” – the Maremma of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

The death penalty had been abolished in Tuscany on November 30, 1786, when the Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo approved the most famous law to come from Italy and the most modern penal code existing in the Europe of the 1700s. The reform abolished for the first time the death penalty, torture, and the crime of “les maesta” (les majeste). It imposed on judges the duty to act with the maximum possible diligence in trials. The reform also provided a basis for indemnifying people who were unjustly tried.

The death penalty was restored in 1790, but only for crimes involving political revolt against the state. The death penalty was then reconfirmed for all municipal crimes by Grand Duke Ferdinand III after the fall of Napoleon.

The famous trial in Grosseto in 1821-22 called 180 witnesses to confront the accused “alla americana” – in the American way. Five of those sentenced were condemned to death by means of the guillotine, which was introduced to Tuscany by order of Grand Duke Ferdinand III on August 29, 1817.

Aafter the Hapsburg-Lorena were driven from Tuscany in 1859, at the dawn of Italian unity, the Tuscany’s Provisional Government definitively abolished capital punishment. Thus, Tuscany confirmed its choice – “Among our people, civilization was always stronger than the executioner’s ax”.

The places where the misdeeds described in the book occurred still exist, so that even today it is possible to reconstruct what happened on that sad morning of June 16, 1821.

Featured Works of Sabrina Cultrera

Jan
07


“Mura di Lucca”
cm. 17 x 27


“Nebbia nel bosco”
cm. 10 x 15

“Sinagoga di Pitigliano”
cm 17.5 x 23.5

About Sabrina Cultrera

Jan
07

Sabrina Cultrera was born in Rome in 1967. After receiving her Maturità Artistica (60/60), she graduated with a degree from the University of Udine (Conservazione dei Beni Culturali all’Università degli Studi di Udine – 110/ 110).

In Pordenone, she turned her talents to graphics and became an illustrator in the advertising and book industries. In 1994, she completed a cycle of paintings in the Chapel of S. Chiara and for the Church of S. Francis. She also made drawings of the Via Crucis that were then transferred to copper.

After moving to Grosseto in 1995, she participated in the watercolor workshop “The Practice and Technique of Watercolor Painting in Plein Eir” taught by Carlo Caporale. Appreciated in the artistic community for her personal interpretation of watercolor technique, she has shown her works in numerous collective and national exhibitions, obtaining positive reviews and growing recognition.

AWARDS

Medal “Cristoforo Marzaroli” [sez] Acquerello 1996>br> Concorso Nazionale Pittura e Grafica C. Marzaroli, Salsomaggiore Terme, Pordenone, Italy

Second Prize 1996
Mostra Nazionale “Falcone della Maremma”, Montepescali, Grosseto, Italy

First Prize 1999
Mostra Nazionale “Falcone della Maremma”, Montepescali, Grosseto, Italy

Watercolors by Sabrina Cultrera

Jan
07

sabrina
Watercolors by Sabrina Cultrera

About the Artist

Featured Works